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Chandler
Group
1/30/03
5 ways to value an investment property
1. Sales Comparison Approach
Sp = Sales Price
SF = Square Feet
Get comps from market divide SP by SF = $/sf
Multiply $/sf x sf of property under consideration to see investment value.
Price per sf x Total sf of building = Investment Value (what its worth)
Ex: Comparable buildings are selling for $85/sf
Subject building is 10,000 sf
$85 x 10,000 sf = $850,000 (what investor is likely to pay)
Rub: Disregards actual income of property. May not be sufficient comps.
2. Gross Rents Multipliers
GRM Gross Rents Multiplier
SP = Sales Price
Get comps from market, divide their sales price by their actual gross rental income (Before any expenses). That gives you the GRM. (You can do monthly or annually, but must be consistent.) Comps SP = $150,000, Rent = 15,000/yr, GRM = 10
Take the subject propertys potential rental income x GRM = Investment Value ( what its worth)
Sometimes an investor will have their GRM standards. In that case, just take the subject propertys potential rental income x investors GRM = what they would pay.
Ex: Propertys annual potential income is $100,000
Investors GRM is 8
$100,000 x 8 = $800,000 (what investor is likely to pay)
Rub: No vacancy, collection losses, expenses, financing, tax issues taken into account.
3. Direct Capitalization
SP = Sales Price
NOI = Net Operating Income
CR = Capitalization Rate = Cap Rate, typically expressed as %
Get comps from the market. Divide their NOI by their SP (NOI SP = CR)
Or use investors required cap rate.
Divide subject propertys NOI by cap rate to determine what investor would pay.
Ask investor if he/she uses the previous years cap rate (going out cap rate) or projected next years cap rate (going in cap rate) Also ask investor what he/she factors into NOI. Many treat reserves, brokerage fees and turnover costs as expenses for purposes of determining NOI and value.
Ex:
Comp #1 NOI = $50,000, SP = $450,000 CR = 11.1
Comp #2 - NOI = $35,000, SP = $410,000 CR = 8.54
Comp #3 NOI = $42,000, SP = $420,000 CR = 10
Now you can average these IF you think they are truly equally comparable and all sold around the same time (if not factor in time) or you can do a weighted average, giving different comps different emphasis. Lets say that you think the typical cap rate for these types of properties is 9.75.
The subject property has a verifiable real live NOI of $47,500. To determine value:
$47,500 9.75(%) = $487,179.
Rub: Snapshot of one year and who knows whats included and whats not. Financing not taken into consideration nor is tax. Doesnt look @ sales proceeds or holding period.
4. Cash on Cash
Subject property look @ 1st year cash flow (before taxes). Divide those proceeds by the initial cash investment (down payment and maybe closing costs) to get cash on cash.
Ex: Say a property was for sale with a $500,000 mortgage. The investor cash on cash requirement is 10%. CFBT (Cash flow before taxes) is $20,000. The investor would be willing to pay:
$20,000 10% = $200,000 (down payment)
$500,000 (Mortgage)
Total value $700,000
Ex: Looking at a deal:
Price asked: $840,000
Amt financed $620,000
Down Payment Required $220,000 (Money off the hip)
Estimated annual CFBT = $25,000 (Cash money)
Cash on cash return = $25,000 $220,000 = 11.36%
(Invested $220K, gets back $25K/yr)
Now the investor decides if he/she could get a better return on their $220,000 elsewhere stocks, bonds, CD, collectibles, gold, futures, etc.
Rub: Does not consider tax impact and looks at one year only. The $25,000 CFBT may be the best year ever or the worst.
5. Discounted Cash flow approaches
(A financial calculator and the knowledge on how to use is required)
A. IRR Internal Rate of Return
B. NPV Net Present Value
C. Capital Accumulation Compares two investments - not shown here
A. Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Takes into account the time and value of money on an investment:
When money put in, how long it stays in investment, how much comes out and when and sales proceeds. Can be done before tax or after tax.
Ex: Property requires a down payment of $20,000. It produces cash flow of $3000 per year. Holding period is 5 years. Its estimated that at the end of 5 years there will be a $24,000 profit from the sales proceeds.
Using the financial calculator, key in the initial investment of ($20,000) for year 0. Note that it is a negative number as it is money going out.
Key in $3000 and press pmt key. (you are getting a payment of $3000)
Key in number of payments holding period (n = 5)
Solve for i. (interest) That is IRR. = 17.81%
Now if cash flows are different amounts, you must use the Cfo and CFj keys and the IRR key.
Ex: Initial investment (down payment) = $10,000, Cash flows are: $0, $1000, $5000, $7931. Not selling, but what is IRR?
Cfo = ($10,000)
CFj = 0
CFj = $1000
CFj = $5000
CFj = $7931
Shift IRR = 10%
(Note, if property were sold @ end of yr 4, add proceeds (profit) to yr 4 CF before keying in.)
B. Net Present Value (NPV)
This method discounts all cash flows back to present value using a stated discount rate (investors yield) and offsets them against the initial investment to show the net present value of an investment today. A positive NPV means that the investment will achieve more than the discount rate (now better referred to as yield) or that the investor could pay that much more for the property and still achieve their state rate. A negative NPV means just the opposite investor will not achieve desired yield or to achieve desired yield, must pay that amount less. A NPV of zero 0 means that the investor will achieve the desired yield given the down payment and cash flows shown.
Ex:
Down payment is $10,000 (remember that this will be a negative #)
Cash flows for the next 4 years are: $0, $1000, $5000, $7931
Desired Discount rate (yield) = 7%
Be sure P/YR is set to 1 (One compounding period per year)
Key in ($10,000) to Cfo
Key in cash flows individually, in order, using CFj key
Key in desired discount rate, 7, using I/YR key
Solve for NPV by hitting SHIFT and NPV
In this example NPV = +$1005. This means that investor will do better than a 7% yield - or - that investor could pay up to $1005 more for property and still achieve 7% yield.
Ex: Do same problem but with discount rate/yield of 13 instead of 7.
NPV = -$887. This means that investor WILL NOT achieve a 13% yield -or - that in order to do so, must pay $887 less up front.
Ex: What to pay?
Same problem but down payment is unknown. Debt is known and mortgage payments factored into cash flows. What we dont know is how much do I need to put down. (Remember, Down payment + Debt = Sales price)
CFo = 0 (Because we dont know down payment)
Key in cash flows in order using CFj key
Entered desired yield using I/YR key
(lets use 10%, but we will key in just 10, the key will make it a %)
Solve for NPV by hitting SHIFT and NPV
NPV = $10,000 which is what an investor would put down and still receive a 10 % return (yield).
6325 Gaywind Drive/Charlotte, NC 28226
704 366-8482 fax 704 366-1722
email: HYPERLINK mailto:cindy@cindychandler.com cindy@cindychandler.com
www.cindychandler.com
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The
Chandler
Group
1/30/03
5 ways to value an investment property
1. Sales Comparison Approach
Sp = Sales Price
SF = Square Feet
Get comps from market divide SP by SF = $/sf
Multiply $/sf x sf of property under consideration to see investment value.
Price per sf x Total sf of building = Investment Value (what it s worth)
Ex: Comparable buildings are selling for $85/sf
Subject building is 10,000 sf
$85 x 10,000 sf = $850,000 (what investor is likely to pay)
Rub: Disregards actual income of property. May not be sufficient comps.
2. Gross Rents Multipliers
GRM Gross Rents Multiplier
SP = Sales Price
Get comps from market, divide their sales price by their actual gross rental income (Before any expenses). That gives you the GRM. (You can do monthly or annually, but must be consistent.) Comp s SP = $150,000, Rent = 15,000/yr, GRM = 10
Take the subject property s potential rental income x GRM = Investment Value ( what it s worth)
Sometimes an investor will have their GRM standards. In that case, just take the subject property s potential rental income x investor s GRM = what they would pay.
Ex: Property s annual potential income is $100,000
Investor s GRM is 8
$100,000 x 8 = $800,000 (what investor is likely to pay)
Rub: No vacancy, collection losses, expenses, financing, tax issues taken into account.
3. Direct Capitalization
SP = Sales Price
NOI = Net Operating Income
CR = Capitalization Rate = Cap Rate, typically expressed as %
Get comps from the market. Divide their NOI by their SP (NOI SP = CR)
Or use investor s required cap rate.
Divide subject property s NOI by cap rate to determine what investor would pay.
Ask investor if he/she uses the previous year s cap rate (going out cap rate) or projected next year s cap rate (going in cap rate) Also ask investor what he/she factors into NOI. Many treat reserves, brokerage fees and turnover costs as expenses for purposes of determining NOI and value.
Ex:
Comp #1 NOI = $50,000, SP = $450,000 CR = 11.1
Comp #2 - NOI = $35,000, SP = $410,000 CR = 8.54
Comp #3 NOI = $42,000, SP = $420,000 CR = 10
Now you can average these IF you think they are truly equally comparable and all sold around the same time (if not factor in time) or you can do a weighted average , giving different comps different emphasis. Let s say that you think the typical cap rate for these types of properties is 9.75.
The subject property has a verifiable real live NOI of $47,500. To determine value:
$47,500 9.75(%) = $487,179.
Rub: Snapshot of one year and who knows what s included and what s not. Financing not taken into consideration nor is tax. Doesn t look @ sales proceeds or holding period.
4. Cash on Cash
Subject property look @ 1st year cash flow (before taxes). Divide those proceeds by the initial cash investment (down payment and maybe closing costs) to get cash on cash.
Ex: Say a property was for sale with a $500,000 mortgage. The investor cash on cash requirement is 10%. CFBT (Cash flow before taxes) is $20,000. The investor would be willing to pay:
$20,000 10% = $200,000 (down payment)
$500,000 (Mortgage)
Total value $700,000
Ex: Looking at a deal:
Price asked: $840,000
Amt financed $620,000
Down Payment Required $220,000 (Money off the hip)
Estimated annual CFBT = $25,000 (Cash money)
Cash on cash return = $25,000 $220,000 = 11.36%
( Invested $220K, gets back $25K/yr)
Now the investor decides if he/she could get a better return on their $220,000 elsewhere stocks, bonds, CD, collectibles, gold, futures, etc.
Rub: Does not consider tax impact and looks at one year only. The $25,000 CFBT may be the best year ever or the worst.
5. Discounted Cash flow approaches
(A financial calculator and the knowledge on how to use is required)
A. IRR Internal Rate of Return
B. NPV Net Present Value
C. Capital Accumulation Compares two investments - not shown here
A. Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Takes into account the time and value of money on an investment:
W%J @ ` 8RHRZRxRzR|R~RRRR$0$hen money put in, how long it stays in investment, how much comes out and when and sales proceeds. Can be done before tax or after tax.
Ex: Property requires a down payment of $20,000. It produces cash flow of $3000 per year. Holding period is 5 years. It s estimated that at the end of 5 years there will be a $24,000 profit from the sales proceeds.
Using the financial calculator, key in the initial investment of ($20,000) for year 0. Note that it is a negative number as it is money going out.
Key in $3000 and press pmt key. (you are getting a payment of $3000)
Key in number of payments holding period (n = 5)
Solve for i. (interest) That is IRR. = 17.81%
Now if cash flows are different amounts, you must use the Cfo and CFj keys and the IRR key.
Ex: Initial investment (down payment) = $10,000, Cash flows are: $0, $1000, $5000, $7931. Not selling, but what is IRR?
Cfo = ($10,000)
CFj = 0
CFj = $1000
CFj = $5000
CFj = $7931
Shift IRR = 10%
(Note, if property were sold @ end of yr 4, add proceeds (profit) to yr 4 CF before keying in.)
B. Net Present Value (NPV)
This method discounts all cash flows back to present value using a stated discount rate (investor s yield) and offsets them against the initial investment to show the net present value of an investment today. A positive NPV means that the investment will achieve more than the discount rate (now better referred to as yield ) or that the investor could pay that much more for the property and still achieve their state rate. A negative NPV means just the opposite investor will not achieve desired yield or to achieve desired yield, must pay that amount less. A NPV of zero 0 means that the investor will achieve the desired yield given the down payment and cash flows shown.
Ex:
Down payment is $10,000 (remember that this will be a negative #)
Cash flows for the next 4 years are: $0, $1000, $5000, $7931
Desired Discount rate (yield) = 7%
Be sure P/YR is set to 1 (One compounding period per year)
Key in ($10,000) to Cfo
Key in cash flows individually, in order, using CFj key
Key in desired discount rate, 7, using I/YR key
Solve for NPV by hitting SHIFT and NPV
In this example NPV = +$1005. This means that investor will do better than a 7% yield - or - that investor could pay up to $1005 more for property and still achieve 7% yield.
Ex: Do same problem but with discount rate/yield of 13 instead of 7.
NPV = -$887. This means that investor WILL NOT achieve a 13% yield -or - that in order to do so, must pay $887 less up front.
Ex: What to pay?
Same problem but down payment is unknown. Debt is known and mortgage payments factored into cash flows. What we don t know is how much do I need to put down. (Remember, Down payment + Debt = Sales price)
CFo = 0 (Because we don t know down payment)
Key in cash flows in order using CFj key
Entered desired yield using I/YR key
(let s use 10%, but we will key in just 10, the key will make it a %)
Solve for NPV by hitting SHIFT and NPV
NPV = $10,000 which is what an investor would put down and still receive a 10 % return (yield).
6325 Gaywind Drive/Charlotte, NC 28226
704 366-8482 fax 704 366-1722
email: HYPERLINK mailto:cindy@cindychandler.com cindy@cindychandler.com
www.cindychandler.com
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